基礎英文文法-Lesson 14《不定詞》

不定詞(to + V)→V指的是原形動詞
當「主詞」用時,永遠指單一事件,所以動詞用單數。
英文句子中通常主詞都是名詞,如果主詞之中要出現動詞,則必須在動詞之前加to,這樣會把那個動詞變成名詞,也就是不定詞。
exam­ple: To exer­cise more is my plan for this sum­mer. (多運動是我今年夏天的計畫)

如果不定詞所形成的主詞很長時,可以用虛主詞 it 代替主詞的位置,而將真正的主詞擺到後面。
exam­ple: To meet in front of the MRT sta­tion is con­ve­nient for us.
= It is con­ve­nient for us to meet in front of the MRT sta­tion. (在捷運站前碰面對我們來說是方便的)

當受詞用時,英文句子中通常受詞都是名詞,如果受詞要出現動詞,同樣要把那個動詞變成不定詞(to+ V)。
exam­ple: I don’t want to go home. (我不想回家)

使用不定詞當受詞的動詞:
decide, hope, need, want, plan, would like等→也就是這些字後面若要加動詞,一定要使用不定詞
exam­ple: I decid­ed to make more mon­ey this year. (今年我決定要多賺點錢)
I hope to ful­fill my dream. (我希望實現我的夢想)
You need to go home now. (你該回家了)
He would like to make friends with Amy. (他想跟Amy做朋友)

另外,可以同時用不定詞和動名詞當作受詞的動詞有love, like, hate,兩者意思相同
exam­ple: I love to play tennis.
=I love play­ing ten­nis. (我喜愛打網球)

注意!不定詞的否定用法為not to+V

exam­ple: He told me not to open the door. (他要我別開門)
這裡常常會誤用為He told me don’t open the door. 這種語法是錯誤的喔!

常用句型
too…to+V  (太…以至於不能…)
exam­ple: He is too shy to make a speech in pub­lic. (他太害羞以至於不能在公眾場所演說)
The stu­dent is too ner­vous to say a word. (這學生太緊張以至於說不出話來)

…enough to+V (足以…)
exam­ple: The room is big enough for us to sleep in. (這房間夠大夠我們睡)
You are old enough to go to school. (你已經夠大可以去上學了)

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