線上英文學習 英文基礎文法

基礎英文文法-Lesson 10《助動詞》

助動詞
就是用來幫助動詞的!!
所以請注意
一個句子裡面有助動詞就會有動詞!!!

助動詞功能如下:
1. 強調語氣
    We do love chocolate.
2. 幫助動詞形成否定句
We do not love chocolate.
3. 幫助動詞形成疑問句
Do you love chocolate?

助動詞的特色:
1. 後面接原形動詞
2. 用什麼問就用什麼回答
    Do you love chocolate?
Yes, I do.  /  No, I don’t.

助動詞種類:

 do/does/did  表意願、想法

exam­ple: Sam doesn’t want to drink the milk.
(Sam不想喝牛奶)

 can/could 表能力、允許

exam­ple: Can I go out with Mark tonight?
(我今晚可以跟­Mark出去嗎?)
Tom can do his home­work by himself.
(Tom可以自己完成作業)

 will/would 表將來的事

exam­ple: It won’t rain tomorrow.
(明天將不會下雨)

 may/might 表可能性、許可

exam­ple: It may rain this afternoon.
(今天下午可能會下雨)
May I dance with you?
(可以跟你一起跳舞嗎?)

 must/ have to  表必須

exam­ple: Stu­dents must fol­low school rules.
(學生必須遵守校規)

 

 shall/ should  將、應該

exam­ple: I should go home now.
(我該回家了)

以上除了­did和had to只用於過去式之外,其他的像是could, would, might, should等字,並沒有時態上的限制,都可以用在現在式、過去式和未來式。

現在,我要特別把do, does, did拿出來講,這些字最容易被混淆,要注意用法。
其中,do用於現在式does用在三單現did用在過去式→→關於三單現,請參考《動詞時態》

例一:He walks to school every­day.  (他每天走路上學)
注意到動詞walks是三單現
所以要改成疑問句或否定句就要用does
變成:(否定句)He doesn’t walk to school every­day. (他不是每天走路上學)
要注意doesn’t後面的walk要改成原形,助動詞只跟原形動詞搭檔!
(疑問句)Does he walk to school every­day? (他每天走路上學嗎?)
也要注意walk變成原形了!!
答句要配合助動詞寫成Yes, he does.
He walks to school every­day. (這句沒有助動詞,原動詞要三單現)
或No, he doesn’t.
He doesn’t walk to school everyday.

例二:They watch TV every evening.  (他們每天傍晚看電視)
動詞是watch原形。所以找do幫忙,變成:
(否定句)They don’t watch TV every evening.  (他們沒有每天傍晚看電視)
(疑問句)Do they watch TV every evening?  (我每天傍晚看電視嗎?)
答句: Yes, they do. They watch TV every evening.
No, they don’t. They don’t watch TV every evening.

例三:They played bas­ket­ball after school yes­ter­day.  (他們昨天放學後打籃球)
動詞是played過去式,所以要改成疑問句或否定句就要用did
變成:(否定句)They didn’t play bas­ket­ball after school yes­ter­day.  (他們昨天放學後沒打籃球)
要注意didn’t後面的play要改成原形,助動詞只跟原形動詞搭檔
(疑問句)Did they play bas­ket­ball after school yes­ter­day?  (他們昨天放學後打籃球嗎?)
也要注意play變成原形了!!
答句要配合助動詞寫成Yes, they did.
They played bas­ket­ball after school yesterday.
或No, they didn’t.
They didn’t play bas­ket­ball after school yesterday.

那麼,到底什麼時候要用be動詞,什麼時候要用助動詞呢?
_____ you hot?  這句hot是形容詞,所以要用be動詞are
_____ you walk to school?  這句go是動詞,所以要用助動詞do表示現在式,若用did則表示過去式。(題目沒有說明時間)

不知道一大串下來懂了沒有?就做一些題目吧!

一、將下列句子改成疑問句及否定句
1. Amy and Erwin went to school with Anna in 2004.
2. Vick­ie goes abroad every year.
3. Ida dri­ves to work every morning.
4. Micky called Min­nie last night.
5. They take a show­er togeth­er everyday.

二、造原問句
1. Yes, I did. I went shop­ping last night.
2. No, he doesn’t. He doesn’t like math.
3. Yes, they did. They played foot­ball togeth­er in college.
4. No, I don’t. I don’t like beef.
5. Yes, she does. She likes to read magazines.

三、填入適當字詞
1. How _____ they go to the USA?
2. _____ there any­thing interesting?
3. _____ they safe?
4. _____ she like chocolate?
5. _____ Father go to bed ear­ly last night?

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